Where It All Started.

Where It All Started.

Life, Stock Trading, Investments, Business and Startup. Most are programming stuff.

Year: 2021

After Meta; Square Rebrands To Block

Square has announced that it is rebranding its company name to “Block” in a move that would see it give its full square brand to its seller business. This will also give the new company a distinct corporate entity from its other businesses, giving it the muscle to expand into other ventures. The company also hinted at building its own fully-fledged metaverse, joining the likes of Meta and Roblox in the crowded field of online gaming companies. This development comes just days after Dorsey stepped down as Twitter C.E.O in what he termed as “critical” to allow Twitter to stand on its own. The move was largely seen by the crypto community as well-timed, allowing Dorsey to concentrate more on building blockchain-based products.

Shiba Inu (SHIB) Price Soars By 25% And Whales Are Still In Control

The price of Shiba Inu jumped 25% on the Kraken exchange after whale bought 24.8 billion SHIB tokens. This made the meme token surpass Avalanche’s (AVAX) and pushed it closer to flipping its rival, Dogecoin, once again. On-chain data suggests that short-term traders have not yet entered the market, which means whales are still in control of the current trend.

New Fund For Algorand-Focused Products Launched By Borderless Capital

Borderless Capital has launched a $500 million fund investing in digital assets powering the next generation of decentralized applications on top of Algorand (ALGO). The Miami-based company started its first Alogorand-focused fund in June 2019. It initially raised $200 million and invested in more than 100 companies, including BlockDaemon, Six Clovers and Osprey Funds. “There is a huge room to grow from here,” David Garcia, Borderless Capital’s founding managing partner said. Borderless Capital has announced a new fund that will invest in the Algorand ecosystem specifically for products involving DeFi liquidity mining, yield farming, lending, borrowing and trading

The firm will be announcing specific investments of the new fund in the coming months. SkyBridge Capital and NAX revealed a partnership in September to offer decentralized applications and institutional investment opportunities that will be part of the initiative using Algorand.

Avalance (AVAX) Will Continue To Rally According To A Crypto Analyst

According to a popular crypto analyst Avalanche has still more room to grow. He says he’s still bullish on the smart contract platform and said it has more room to grow up to more than 280 USD. He’s comparing the movement of Avalanche to Solana’s parabolic move.

Also quoted from the crypto analyst “If the $SOL (Solana) run is anything to go by, then $AVAX (Avalanche) should have plenty of gas left in the tank.”.

Zooming in the crypto analyst chart, seems he plotted that it will go up to 280 USD with a potential of 110% from its current price 128-133 USD.

At the time of the writing the price of Avalanche still swinging from 120-140 USD with an ATR (Average True Range) of 4.2.
Stay updated always in the crypto space!

Rebasing With Git

Rebasing is one of the features you probably want to have, if you plan to work on a neat git based project.

🍣 Where To Rebase?

If you know how many commits you make, to rebase you use git rebase with -i flag to enable interactive rebasing. The HEAD~<n> corresponds to the number of commits you have done (e.g. HEAD~4 if you have 4 commits to rollback to get to common ancestor commit).

git rebase -i HEAD~<n>

Sometimes, you commit a lot and forgot how many commits you’d make. To know the least common anscestor you have with master, you do git merge-base with your branch name as parameter.

git merge-base <your-branch> master

The above command will return a git hash which you can use on the git rebase command.

If you already know the git hash, then you can rollback to that specific commit and moving all current changes to unstaged. Once, the editor pop-ups you will choose which commit to retain, squash, and reword.

git rebase -i <git-ref-hash>

🍣 Merge Latest From Master

If you’ve already rebased your changes and needed to get lastest changes from master. All you have to do is rebase to the latest changes from master.
This command will do that.

git rebase origin/master

In any case, you’ve encountered some conflict first resolve it then continue in rebasing instead of creating new merge commit.

git rebase --continue

🍣 Overwriting Remote Repo Changes

Once all is done, overwrite your remote repo latest changes if you’ve pushed it. This will do a force push ignoring current ref on remote repo.

git push -f

🍣 Did Something Wrong? In Need Of Rollback

Did something wrong on merging conflicts? Don’t worry you can still see your previous changes using the command git reflog short for reference log.
You can checkout the reference hash then re-merge your changes.

git reflog


  • https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-rebase-and-update-a-pull-request

Limit Window Subsystem Linux v2 (WSL2) Resources To Speed Up Kubernetes

Window Subsystem Linux v2 (WSL2) is an iteration of the VM created by Microsoft, from Hyper-V to WSL and this the second generation of WSL. If it’s your first time accessing WSL2, it automatically provide you with the default setup which doesn’t provide any limits accessing your full workstation resources (CPU, RAM and other HDD). It means that if you have 8 cores cpu and 16Gb memory, it will use all that up. The problem with it is sometimes it affects your host computer and it gets slow. So to solve that problem we try to limit the resource consumption of WSL2.

Limit WSL Resource Consumption

On your profile directory %USERPROFILE% create a new file named .wslconfig. Set it’s content to the following:


Change the settings base on your workstation capability, and this is what works for me.

Next, open up a powershell terminal in administrator mode and restart the LxssManager as this manages WSL2.

Get-Service LxssManager | Restart-Service

You could also use the wsl --shutdown method to restart WSL. Check if the vmmem process still consumes beyond its limit.


If the changes still not reflecting, try to restart your machine and also restart Docker Desktop.

Simple Rust Mutation Relationship Diagram

Rust mutation can be somewhat confusing if your a beginner. Its similar to C++ way of doing things on where to put the asterisk (*) and ampersand (&) sign in variable declaration. Moving the asterisk sign and ampersand sign makes the declaration sometimes more mutable and also can make it less mutable.

Here is a simple diagram on Rust mutation that I found on StackOverflow (SO). I can’t find the exact link to reference as this one is stored in my notes.

        a: &T == const T* const a;      // can't mutate either
    mut a: &T == const T* a;            // can't mutate what is pointed to
    a: &mut T == T* const a;            // can't mutate pointer
mut a: &mut T == T* a;                  // can mutate both

Converting Rust String To And From

Rust &str and String is different in a sense that str is static, owned and fix sized while String can be dynamically allocated once and be converted to mutable to be appended. Most of the time you’ll be working with String on Rust when re-allocating and moving values between structs.

There are times you may need to convert dynamic string to char bytes and static string. Here are ways to do it:

From &str

  • &str -> String has many equally valid methods: String::from(st), st.to_string(), st.to_owned().
    • But I suggest you stick with one of them within a single project. The major advantage of String::from is that you can use it as an argument to a map method. So instead of x.map(|s| String::from(s)) you can often use x.map(String::from).
  • &str -> &[u8] is done by st.as_bytes()
  • &str -> Vec<u8> is a combination of &str -> &[u8] -> Vec<u8>, i.e. st.as_bytes().to_vec() or st.as_bytes().to_owned()

From String

  • String -> &str should just be &s where coercion is available or s.as_str() where it is not.
  • String -> &[u8] is the same as &str -> &[u8]: s.as_bytes()
  • String -> Vec<u8> has a custom method: s.into_bytes()

From &[u8]

  • &[u8] -> Vec<u8> is done by u.to_owned() or u.to_vec(). They do the same thing, but to_vec has the slight advantage of being unambiguous about the type it returns.
  • &[u8] -> &str doesn’t actually exist, that would be &[u8] -> Result<&str, Error>, provided via str::from_utf8(u)
  • &[u8] -> String is the combination of &[u8] -> Result<&str, Error> -> Result<String, Error>

From Vec<u8>

  • Vec<u8> -> &[u8] should be just &v where coercion is available, or as_slice where it’s not.
  • Vec<u8> -> &str is the same as Vec<u8> -> &[u8] -> Result<&str, Error> i.e. str::from_utf8(&v)
  • Vec<u8> -> String doesn’t actually exist, that would be Vec<u8> -> Result<String, Error> via String::from_utf8(v)

Coercion is available whenever the target is not generic but explicitly typed as &str or &[u8], respectively. The Rustonomicon has a chapter on coercions with more details about coercion sites.


&str    -> String  | String::from(s) or s.to_string() or s.to_owned()
&str    -> &[u8]   | s.as_bytes()
&str    -> Vec<u8> | s.as_bytes().to_vec() or s.as_bytes().to_owned()
String  -> &str    | &s if possible* else s.as_str()
String  -> &[u8]   | s.as_bytes()
String  -> Vec<u8> | s.into_bytes()
&[u8]   -> &str    | s.to_vec() or s.to_owned()
&[u8]   -> String  | std::str::from_utf8(s).unwrap(), but don't**
&[u8]   -> Vec<u8> | String::from_utf8(s).unwrap(), but don't**
Vec<u8> -> &str    | &s if possible* else s.as_slice()
Vec<u8> -> String  | std::str::from_utf8(&s).unwrap(), but don't**
Vec<u8> -> &[u8]   | String::from_utf8(s).unwrap(), but don't**

* target should have explicit type (i.e., checker can't infer that)

** handle the error properly instead

Move Docker Desktop Data to Another Location (WSL 2)

In Docker Desktop for Windows the WSL2 version, you don’t usually have options to increase memory and diskspace as it will be managed directly by Windows.

The Docker Desktop data can be found originally in this location %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Docker\wsl\data.

🚚 Export Docker Data

In order to make this work, first shutdown Docker Desktop. This can be done by right-clicking the system tray icon of Docker then from the context menu Quit Docker Destop.

Next is open your command prompt and type the following:

wsl --list -v

On which, when run will return to you the state of all WSL images.

  NAME                   STATE           VERSION
* docker-desktop         Stopped         2
  docker-desktop-data    Stopped         2

After that we export the docker-desktop-data into a tar archive. We will assume you are planning to move the docker data into D: drive, and within the drive you have already created a folder named Docker.

wsl --export docker-desktop-data "D:\docker-desktop-data.tar"

Next, is to unregister docker-desktop-data from WSL.
This command below will delete ext4.vhdx from %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Docker\wsl\data\ext4.vhdx, so make sure you back it up first.

wsl --unregister docker-desktop-data

🚛 Import Docker Data

After export, we do import docker-desktop-data back to WSL.

wsl --import docker-desktop-data "D:\Docker" "D:\docker-desktop-data.tar" --version 2

The ext4.vhdx will now reside in the D:\Docker folder. Start Docker Desktop and verify the changes.

If everything works out, you can now delete the tar archive you created earlier D:\docker-desktop-data.tar. Please don’t delete the ext4.vhdx, otherwise you would lose all your images and containers in docker.

In case docker icon turns red in Docker Desktop, clear the docker cache which can be found in Docker Desktop settings.

Install Istio to Docker Desktop (WSL 2)

Istio is an open source service mesh. The documentation for installing it on windows is a bit vague, and the website only provides documentation for nix based systems.

Install Istio

Download the istioctl.exe executable from the official istio releases page and extract then place it in a folder your choice. Next will be adding it to your environment variable.

Adding the to environment variable will be straight-forward, add the directory location of the istioctl to PATH.

Install the istio namespace and services in kubernetes.

istioctl install --set profile=default -y

Also set istio to automatically inject Envoy sidecar proxies when deploying applications and services to default namespace.

kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled


Determine if Kubernetes cluster is running in an environment that supports external load balancer.

kubectl get svc istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system

Check if there are any problems presented in analyze.

istioctl analyze

Also, check the endpoint if its empty or returning any headers and data.

curl -H curl -s -I -HHost:keycloak.7f000101.nip.io